1 курс ІІ семестр

Lesson 1

ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMPUTERS

In the first half of the 20th century, scientists started using computers, mostly because scientists had a lot of math to figure out and wanted to spend more of their time thinking about the secrets of the universe instead of spending hours adding numbers together. If you remember getting bored doing your times tables, you will know exactly how they felt.

So they put together computers. These computers used analog circuits, which made them very hard to program. Then, in the 1930s, they invented digital computers, which made them easier to program.

Scientists figured out how to make and use digital computers in the 1930s and 1940s. Scientists made a lot of digital computers, and as they did, they figured out how to ask them the right sorts of questions to get the most out of them.

In 2005 Nokia started to call some of its mobile phones (the N-series) «multimedia computers» and after the launch of the Apple iPhone in 2007, many are now starting to add the smartphone category among «real» computers. In 2008, if the category of smartphones is included in the numbers of computers in the world, the biggest computer maker by units sold is no longer Hewlett-Packard, but rather Nokia.

1. Find the English equivalents in the text:

Зображувати (уявляти, фігурувати), витрачати час, секрети всесвіту, додавати числа, винайти цифровий комп’ютер, аналогова схема, ставити правильні запитання, називати мобільний телефон, запуск, додавати категорію.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations:

To figure out math, instead of spending hours, to know exactly, to make and use digital computers, multimedia computers, to be included in the numbers of computers, computer maker.

3. Answer the following questions:

Why did scientists start using computers?

What did the first computers use?

What made scientists easier to program?

What category was added in 2007?

What is the biggest computer maker?

4. Match the definitions to the notions:

1. science

а) the study of numbers, shapes and patterns

2. scientist

b) a little portable telephone

3. mathematics

c) a mobile phone which is able to run more than one program at the same time which helps the user complete tasks quicker and easier

4. analog computer

d) a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena

5. digital computer

e) a computer with technology that uses discrete, discontinuous representations of information or works in a discontinuous manner

6. mobile phone

f) people who make observations, ask questions and do extensive research work in finding the answers to these questions

7. smartphone

g) getting knowledge or making the knowledge better

5. Discuss with your friend what you know about mobile phones and smartphones.

SPEAKING ENGLISH

6. Read and retell the story.

The Secretary’s Watch

The first American President, George Washington, was a very punctual man, and he demanded punctuality from his subordinates. One morning Washington’s private secretary was a bit late and found the president already waiting for him. The secretary tried to excuse himself by saying that his watch was slow, but Washington replied quietly, «I am afraid you will have to get another watch, or I — another secretary.»

7. Answer the following questions:

1) Are you a punctual person?

2) Are you never late for your work (lectures)?

3) Do you demand punctuality from others?

4) Do you like to wait for anybody?

5) How do you excuse yourself when you are late?

6) Are your excuses usually accepted?

8. Make up short stories illustrating the following proverbs:

1) Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

2) Make hay while the sun shines.

3) Better late than never, but still better never late.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

9. Replace the pronoun any or its derivatives by no or its derivatives making other necessary changes:

The little boy hasn’t any toys and he can’t play any game.

There isn’t any water in the jug on the shelf.

There aren’t any fruit trees in the garden of this strange man.

We haven’t any classes on Sunday and usually work at books in the library.

It was so dark and we couldn’t see anything.

We haven’t learned any new words at our French lessons this week.

She didn’t ask anyone to help her and was proud of it.

I didn’t see anyone here who could solve that problem.

I didn’t know anything about it. Ask somebody else.

There wasn’t any theatre in our town before the revolution.

10. Fill in the blanks with much, many, little, a little, few, a few:

This is my mother’s favourite recipe for fruitcake, and everybody says it’s out of this world!

Put … cups of flour into a mixing bowl.

Add … sugar.

Slice … apples.

Cut up … oranges.

Pour in … honey.

Add … baking soda.

Chop up … nuts.

Add … salt.

Mix in … raisins.

Bake for 45 minutes.

Enjoy, dear!

11. Translate into English using necessary prepositions:

Пройдіть цим коридором, поверніть за ріг і увійдіть у першу кімнату.

Через п’ять хвилин усі сиділи за столом і слухали бабусю.

Він дивився на човни, що пливуть по річці.

Минулого року ми подорожували по Європі.

Він ішов вулицею і дивився на обличчя перехожих.

Він перейшов дорогу й увійшов у кафе.

Іди цією стежкою через поле і через ліс, через дві години ти підійдеш до річки.

Вони блукали містом від світанку до заходу сонця.

Увечері вони повернулися до готелю, втомлені, але задоволені.

Том Сойер перестрибнув через паркан і побіг вулицею.

12. Transform the following sentences using adverbs instead of the given adjectives:

Model: His answer was good. – He answered well.

John is a slow eater.

Mary’s translation of the sentence is correct.

My companion was a quick walker.

She was a careless cook.

His arrival was unexpected.

My friend is an excellent dancer.

His death was sudden.

Her speech at the meeting was wonderful.

Lesson 2

KINDS OF COMPUTERS

There are three types of computers: personal computers, mainframes, and embedded computers.

A «desktop computer» is a small machine that has a screen (which is not part of the computer). Most people keep them on top of a desk, which is why they are called «desktop computers.» «Laptop computers» are computers small enough to fit on your lap. This makes them easy to carry

around. Both laptops and desktops are called personal computers, because one person at a time uses them for things like playing music, surfing the web, or playing video games.

There are bigger computers that many people at a time can use. These are called «Mainframes,» and these computers do all the things that make things like the internet work.

Microcomputers are the most common type of computers used by people today, whether in a workplace at school or on the desk at home. The term “microcomputer” was introduced with the advent of single chip microprocessors. The term «microcomputer» itself is now practically an anachronism.

These computers include:

Desktop computers – a case and a display, put under and on a desk.

In-car computers (“carputers”) – built into a car, for entertainment, navigation, etc.

Game consoles – fixed computers specialized for entertainment purposes (video games).

A separate class is that of mobile devices:

Laptops, notebook computers – portable and all in one case; varying sizes, but other than smart books expected to be “full” computers without limitations.

Tablet computer – like laptops, but with a touch-screen, sometimes entirely replacing the physical keyboard.

Smartphones, smart books and PDAs (personal digital assistants) – small handheld computers with limited hardware.

Programmable calculator– like small handhelds, but specialized on mathematical work.

Handheld game consoles – the same as game consoles, but small and portable.

1. Find the English equivalents in the text:

Вбудована система, екран, поміститися на колінах, переносити, найбільш поширений вид комп’ютерів, на робочому місці, поява мікропроцесора, розважальна мета, різноманітні розміри, портативний комп’ютер.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations:

Mainframes, surfing the web, to be introduced, the advent of single chip microprocessors, a case, without limitations, a touch-screen, the physical keyboard, handheld computers, limited hardware, portable.

3. Answer the following questions:

1) What types of computers are there?

2) Why is a desktop or laptop computer called a personal one?

3) What is «mainframes»?

4) What is the aim of carputers?

5) What is the main feature of tablet computer?

6) What is programmable calculator specialized on?

4. Match the definitions to the notions:

1) main frames

a) a personal computer in a form intended for regular use at a single location

2) embedded computer

b) a personal computer for mobile use

3) desktop computer

c) a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system

4) laptop computer

d) computers used primarily by corporate and governmental organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and transaction processing

SPEAKING ENGLISH

5. Answer the following questions about yourself:

1) How old are you?

2) Do you live with your parents or in the hostel?

3) Have you a large family?

4) How many people does your family consist of?

5) Who is older, you or your brother (sister)?

6) Who is the eldest in your family?

7) Are you married?

8) When did you get married?

9) Have your grandparents?

10) Whom were you brought up by?

11) What education did you get?

12) Will you give me your address?

6. Make up short stories illustrating the following proverbs:

1) There’s no place like home.

2) East or West, home is best.

7. Read the story.

Of Two Evils Choose the Lesser

A rich man in one of the Western states of America had two sons. He was very fond of them but unfortunately he showed his love for them by letting the boys do whatever they liked and giving them whatever they wanted, so that they were quite spoiled.

An earthquake was expected in the region of this town and in alarm the loving father sent his precious boys to a friend of his in New York, who was willing to do much for the alarmed father. For several days he greatly suffered from his noisy guests, who were turning the whole house upside down, but at last, not being able to stand their company any longer, he sent his friend the following telegram: «For goodness’ sake send us the earthquake and take back the boys.»

8. Answer the following questions:

1) Where did this loving father live?

2) How did he show his love?

3) Why did the father send his precious boys to New York?

4) Why was the father alarmed?

5) Did their father’s friend willingly accept the visit of the boys?

6) How did the boys behave at the house of their father’s friend?

7) What telegram did the father receive from his friend?

8) What did the telegram mean?

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

9. Put the verb in brackets into the right form of the Present Indefinite Tense:

You (to be) rather old-fashioned in your views, I think.

His wife (to be) a fine lady from London.

His wife (to have) a headache and has gone to lie down.

By the way, you (to be) a friend of the Eliot’s, I believe.

The whole thing (to seem) fantastic.

Her father (to work) at one of the local farms – Paterson’s, I think.

“I really (to know) nothing about her”, said Miss Brewers.

I (to be) not mad and I (to be) not drunk”, said Mrs. Oliver.

Life (to be) full of surprises.

Well, they (to seem) a very nice young couple.

The police (to be), I believe, very efficient. They (to have) ample facilities for tracing the whereabouts of missing persons.

She (to wait) for him to return.

10. Write three forms of the following verbs:

Break, catch, choose, draw, fall, fight, keep, lose, run, set, shoot, spread, swim, throw, win.

11. Put the verb in brackets into the right form of the Past Indefinite Tense:

I (to see) my friends yesterday and (to accept) their invitation.

I (to write) to my cousin three weeks ago and (to get) no reply.

She (to look) pleased because George (to give) that lovely ring to her.

He (to meet) you both in here about two month ago.

I (to call) you at five, but you (to be) not in.

I (to teach) that girl to drive myself when she (to be) fifteen.

His mother (to die) three or four years ago but he (not to tell) anybody about it.

I should like to tell you what (to happen) eighteen months ago.

I’m not much of a theatre-goer myself, but my wife (to go) along and (to see) the play last week.

12. Make the sentences negative:



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