английский 2 курс

2 курс, ф-т строительный, заочное отделениеВариант 1Task 1. Read the text and find out  what problems are mentioned.           The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today issued a final rule to help reduce water pollution from construction sites. The agency believes this rule, which takes effect in February 2010 and will be phased in over four years, will significantly improve the quality of water nationwide.Construction activities like clearing, excavating and grading significantly disturb soil and sediment. If that soil is not managed properly it can easily be washed off of the construction site during storms and pollute nearby water bodies.The final rule requires construction site owners and operators that disturb one or more acres to use best management practices to ensure that soil disturbed during construction activity does not pollute nearby water bodies.In addition, owners and operators of sites that impact 10 or more acres of land at one time will be required to monitor discharges and ensure they comply with specific limits on discharges to minimize the impact on nearby water bodies.This is the first time that EPA has imposed national monitoring requirements and enforceable numeric limitations on construction site storm water discharges.Soil and sediment runoff is one of the leading causes of water quality problems nationwide. Soil runoff from construction has also reduced the depth of small streams, lakes and reservoirs, leading to the need for dredging.More information: http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/guide/constructionTask 2. Memorize the words and phrases and their meanings1. reduce water pollution,  2. clearing, excavating and grading,3. construction site,4. improve the quality of water,  5. disturb soil and sediment,  6. to  manage the  soil properly,  7. to monitor discharges8. to minimize the impact on nearby water bodies ,9. to impose national monitoring requirements,10. is one of the leading causes of water quality problems,11.    Soil and sediment runoff,12. reduce the depth of small streams, lakes and reservoirs.Task 3.  Read the text and make a short report using 15-20 sentences.A building code or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. The main purpose of the building codes is to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate authority.Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects and engineers, but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, contractors and subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants, and others.There are often additional codes or sections of the same building code that have more specific requirements that apply to dwellings and special construction objects such as canopies, signs, pedestrian walkways, parking lots, radio and television antennas. The practice of developing, approving, and enforcing building codes varies considerably among nations. In some countries building codes are developed by the government agencies or quasi-governmental standards organizations and then enforced across the country by the central government. Such codes are known as the national building codes (in a sense they enjoy a mandatory nation-wide application).In other countries, where the power of regulating construction and fire safety is vested in local authorities, a system of model building codes is used. Model building codes have no legal status unless adopted or adapted by an authority having jurisdiction. The developers of model codes urge public authorities to reference model codes in their laws, ordinances, regulations, and administrative orders. When referenced in any of these legal instruments, a particular model code becomes law. This practice is known as adoption by reference. When an adopting authority decides to delete, add, or revise any portions of the model code adopted, it is usually required by the model code developer to follow a formal adoption procedure in which those modifications can be documented for legal purposes.There are instances when some local jurisdictions choose to develop their own building codes. For example, at some point in time all major cities in the United States had their own building codes as part of their municipal codes. Since having its own building code can be very expensive for a municipality, many have decided to adopt model codes instead. Only the cities of New York and Chicago continue to use the building codes they developed on their own; yet these codes also include multiple references to model codes, such as the National Electrical Code. Additionally, New York City is currently working to modify and apply the International Building Code for the city in a massive Model Code Program.Similarly each municipality and urban development authority has its own building code, which is mandatory for all construction within their jurisdiction. All these local building codes are variants of a National Building Code, which serves as model code proving guidelines for regulating building construction activity.Building codes do not carry copyrights. They are public law. The supreme court ruled in 2005 in a case named Veeckvs the Southern Building Code that the codes may be posted freely.Building codes generally include:Structural safety: buildings should be strong enough to resist internally and externally applied forces without collapsing;Fire safety: includes requirements to prevent the fire spread to/from neighbours, provide warning of occupants, and safe exiting of building, limitation on fire spread, and provisions for fire suppression/fire fighting;Health requirements: adequate washrooms, adequate air circulation, and plumbing materials.Some building codes sometimes include requirements for:Noise mitigation to protect building occupants from noise pollution.Accessibility: requirements to ensure that a building is accessible for persons in wheelchairs or having other disabilities.Energy conservation, either by prescribing design requirements for the building envelope, heating & cooling equipment, lighting load, etc., or by requiring the building to meet specified energy performance standards (typically expressed as the maximum energy use per unit floor area). The Indian Energy Conservation Building Code provides a choice to building designers to use either of the two approaches.Indoor air qualityBuilding codes generally do not include:Aesthetics: Any regulation of the aesthetics of buildings is usually included in zoning by-laws;Traffic convenience: Limitations on traffic flow are usually either in zoning or other municipal by-laws;Building Use: the safe use of a building is generally in the Fire code; orRequired upgrades for existing building: unless the building is being renovated the building code usually does not apply.Вариант 2Task 1. Read the text and make a short report on the Quality control and    Construction Safety.Quality control and Construction Safety represent increasingly important concerns for project managers.Weak quality control leads to defects or failures in constructed facilities, thus result in very large costs. Even with minor defects, reconstruction may be required and facility operations impaired. Increased costs and delays are the result. In the worst case, failures may cause personal injuries or fatalities. Accidents during the construction process can similarly result in personal injuries and large costs. Indirect costs of insurance, inspection and regulation are increasing rapidly due to these increased direct costs. Good project managers try to ensure that the job is done right the first time and that no major accidents occur on the project.As with cost control, the most important decisions regarding the quality of a completed facility are made during the design and planning stages rather than during construction. It is during these preliminary stages that component configurations, material specifications and functional performance are decided. Quality control during construction consists largely of insuring conformance to these original design and planning decisions.While conformance to existing design decisions is the primary focus of quality control, there are exceptions to this rule. First, unforeseen circumstances, incorrect design decisions or changes desired by an owner in the facility function may require re-evaluation of design decisions during the course of construction. While these changes may be motivated by the concern for quality, they represent occasions for re-design with all the attendant objectives and constraints. As a second case, some designs rely upon informed and appropriate decision making during the construction process itself. For example, some tunneling methods make decisions about the amount of shoring required at different locations based upon observation of soil conditions during the tunneling process. Since such decisions are based on better information concerning actual site conditions, the facility design may be more cost effective as a result.With the attention to conformance as the measure of quality during the construction process, the specification of quality requirements in the design and contract documentation becomes extremely important. Quality requirements should be clear and verifiable, so that all parties in the project can understand the requirements for conformance. Much of the discussion in this chapter relates to the development and the implications of different quality requirements for construction as well as the issues associated with insuring conformance.Safety during the construction project is also influenced in large part by decisions made during the planning and design process. Some designs or construction plans are inherently difficult and dangerous to implement, whereas other, comparable plans may considerably reduce the possibility of accidents. For example, clear separation of traffic from construction zones during roadway rehabilitation can greatly reduce the possibility of accidental collisions. Beyond these design decisions, safety largely depends upon education, vigilance and cooperation during the construction process. Workers should be constantly alert to the possibilities of accidents and avoid taken unnecessary risks.Task 2. Translate the phrases and memorize them.1. Quality control and Construction Safety2. leads to defects or failures in constructed facilities,3. to result in very large costs4. minor defects5. cause personal injuries or fatalities6. major accidents7. design and planning stages8. preliminary stages9. to decide component configurations, material specifications and functional performance10. primary focus of quality control,11. there are exceptions to this rule12. the requirements for conformance13. unforeseen circumstancesTask 3.  Answer the questions1. What are possible incorrect design decisions or changes in the construction?2. Why re-evaluation of design decisions during the course of construction can take place?3. Why should Quality requirements be clear and verifiable?4. What does the discussion in the text  relate to?  Вариант 3.Task 1. Read the text, do tasks 2, 3. Instruct the group-mates to help them stay safe in a onstruction site.  Begin with the introduction: Safety should always be on the top of the list of any construction job…              Safe construction site tipsMany remodeling jobs seem simple and straightforward enough for many people, but there are often complexities and difficulties underlying the whole project that many would take for granted. Safety should always be on the top of the list of any construction job, even if it is a seemingly simple project at home. Here are some tips to help you stay safe in a construction site. A construction site environment can be a very difficult place to control and to keep safe unless there have been prior arrangements and agreement to use safe practices in the construction zone. Setting expectations for safety and how the rules will be enforced should be the first step in planning any construction job. This will make sure that everyone will remain safe for the duration of the project and that all of the materials used will be used properly and effectively for the project. The environment, materials, tools and chemicals that are frequently used in a construction job can be very harmful if not used properly. Educate everyone that will be involved in the project about the possible health threats and hazards that can come from ignoring good safety practices.A safe construction job should start with the right tools. Basic safety equipment should be available to anyone who is going to be working on the project. Depending on type of project, you and your workers could require the use of a hard hat, safety goggles, work boots, proper gloves, ear protection, face masks, or even respirators. Having these standard safety items on hand will make it easier for people to work in a safe environment.Before you begin a project, you should take a walkthrough of the site and ascertain any safety hazards that could be a problem. This will take some time and special consideration and will require thoughtful and insightful observation of visible and non-apparent conditions in the construction site. Identify and mark any unsafe materials or hazards so that people who will be working in the area can quickly and easily become aware of them. It’s also a god idea to take everyone that will be working on the project on a tour of the site before work actually begins so that they can understand what conditions exist at what points in the job.Using the right safety tools is very important and makes it much easier to remain safe and unharmed in the process, but having the right tools for the specific job needed is also important. There are many situations where using the wrong tool for the job can pose a very serious hazard and potential for injury. An example is using a hammer as a pry bar instead of actually using a pry bar. It is also bad to use a tool like a screwdriver as a chisel or other tool used to remove items that are stuck fast on a particular surface.It is also important to use the right tools in the right places. Using a saw can be a very safe thing when done properly, but can be hazardous if it is used in the wrong way or even in the wrong type of area. For example, using a table saw in a very small area or in a place where many other people are working can be a threat to everyone else in the room or could damage the other materials being used in the project. Common sense is one of the best safety practices to have at hand for any project and thinking about a project before jumping in can lead to a much better outcome in the end.Task 2 Translate the phrases, memorize them and use to instruct your group-mates .1. a hard hat, 2. safety goggles,3. work boots,4. proper gloves,5. ear protection,6. face masks,7. respirators8. remodeling jobs9. take for granted10. be on the top of the list11. to ignore  good  safety  practices12. take some time and special consideration 13. require thoughtful and insightful observation of visible and non-apparent conditions in the construction site14. possible health threats and hazards15. Identify and mark any unsafe materials or hazards16. Depending on type of projectTask 3.  What tools are mentioned in the text? Make the list of them.Вариант 4Task 1.  Read the text, do tasks 2, 3 and make a short report using 15-20 sentences.      Choosing a lot for home buildingWhen it comes to building a home, there are many things you need to keep in mind. But the first thing you will need to do is find a lot for building your home. In fact, this should even be done before you have finalized your building plans—site conditions such as drainage and soil can affect your overall cost as well as the design.If you are choosing a lot in a development that is already planned, it will be all ready for building; the developers will have already taken care of that. This is convenient because you don’t have to worry about getting the lot tested for drainage and soil types. But even if you are choosing a lot in a development, there are still things to keep in mind, such as: -          Will the house you want to build go with the style in the neighborhood? Are there specific requirements you must meet? Sometimes, people choose a lot in a development only to find a number of restrictions.-          Will your home be proportionate to the size of the lot? Is it so big you won’t have any room left for a yard?-        Where does the sun rise and set? You might want to consider this when deciding which way areas like bedrooms will face.-          How much landscaping is required for the lot? What will it do to your overall costs and budget?-        Is the lot positioned by a street or road? Will you hear heavy traffic or have difficulty getting in and out of your neighborhood?These are just a few things to consider. If you are not picking a lot that has already been developed for building, you will have other things to keep in mind. When choosing your lot, make sure you look at:  Soil.  DrainageThe soil on the land will have layers with different soil types, and it’s crucial your builder know what soil is there for the purposes of laying foundation. You will also need to know for landscaping purposes. As a general rule, codes for foundations are written for sand or gravel soils, so you want to make sure that is the type of soil you are building on. Other types of soils will be not ideal for building, and may have much stricter requirements if you want to build a home there.Drainage is a huge factor to be taken into account when choosing a lot for home building. The type of soil drainage, which depends on the type of soil you want to build on, will have an effect on your overall foundation. Soil from your excavation is often used to fill back against the foundation walls, but poor drainage will create pressure and moisture to your foundation. If you are building in an area that doesn’t drain as well, such as silts or clays, you will have to bring in additional soil, such as sand or gravel. Drainage will also need to be taken into account for landscaping purposes.Choosing a lot for your new home is one of the most important decisions you’ll make, so it’s important to invest plenty of research and time into finding the perfect lot. The above tips are just a few things to keep in mind when choosing a lot.Task 2 Translate the phrases, memorize them.1. To choose a lot2. When it comes to building a home3. you need to keep in mind4. you don’t have to worry about getting the lot tested for drainage and soil types5. specific requirements  you  must  meet6. These are just a few things to consider7. To take into account8. To have an effect on9. sand or gravel soils10. to be ideal for building11. poor drainage will create pressure and moisture to your foundation12. to make sure thatTask 3. What things do you need to keep in mind when it comes to building a home? Name 7 points.Вариант 5Task 1. Read the text and find out why construction is a dangerous  profession  Construction accidents are one of the most common work related personal injuries. Construction injuries may be the result of machinery failure involving fork lifts, cranes, front end loaders and any other piece of construction machinery found on the job site. They may also involve faulty safety equipment, falling debris, lack of proper training for construction workers, improperly assembled scaffolding, structural collapse, electrical fires, electrocution and a slew of other job site violations.In many cases, construction workers are victims of irresponsible employers and are exposed to unnecessary risk while at work. It is also common for third party members, such as contractors and subcontractors, to be present on the job site, creating hazardous and chaotic conditions for the workers. No matter what construction company you work for, it is the responsibility of the construction company to educate their workers on proper safety precautions and to make sure the job site meets all safety regulations. The Department of Labor and Industries examined construction injuries over a four year period. They found the following seven injuries to be the most common (they also accounted for 92 percent of all compensable claims):• Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back and upper extremities• Workers struck by heavy machinery or falling objects• Workers pinned up against a wall by machinery or motor vehicles• Workers caught inside or underneath a piece of machinery• Slips or falls on ground level of the construction site• Falls from an elevated height of the construction site• General motor vehicle injuriesAccidents are often due to carelessness and not thinking through what you are doing.  Fresh concrete can cause eye injuries and skin burns. When working with fresh concrete, wear protective clothing (a long-sleeved shirt, rubber boots, and rubber gloves) and eye protection to avoid getting fresh concrete on your skin or in your eyes. If you do get fresh concrete on your skin, wash it off with clean water. And remember that the tool clean-off bucket is not clean water.* Finishers should wear long pants, work boots, knee pads (and use knee boards), and gloves. Immediately remove clothing that has become saturated with wet concrete.* The simple use of personal protection equipment (PPEs–hard hats, gloves, boots, eye protection, fall protection, respirators, and so forth.) can save workers from the short-term and long-term effects of construction site conditions.* Ear plugs must be used when the noise level gets to the point where you have to raise your voice to speak to the person working next to you. It doesn’t take much exposure to noise to permanently damage your hearing.* Dust masks or respirators must be worn whenever there’s a chance of inhaling dirt, dust, chips, or mist; when you are cutting, grinding, or chipping hardened concrete; or when you are mixing epoxy or grout. Be sure to ask for training in the selection and use of a proper respirator. Another solution to this problem is to use wet methods or “dustless” vacuum tools.* Ladders and stairways are major sources of injuries and fatalities among construction workers. Employers should ensure that employees are trained by a competent person in the nature of fall hazards; the correct procedure for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling fall protection systems; proper construction, use, placement, and care in handling stairways and ladders; and the maximum intended load-carrying capacity of ladders.* Scaffolding should be solidly constructed, even if it is to be used only for a short time. Be sure uprights are uniformly spaced, plumb, and set on a good solid foundation. Use horizontal or diagonal bracing for stability. Planking should overlap the support by a minimum of 12 inches. Scaffolding should be tied to walls, buildings, or other structures. A competent person should inspect the scaffolding daily.* The most hazardous moment when working at heights is when you are moving from place to place. That’s why you always need to be tied off to something substantial–something that can support a dead weight of 5000 pounds. Any time you go over a guardrail to perform work, you must be tied off. Fall protection should also be worn when working at ground level around open excavations 6 feet or more in depth. Be sure to place guardrails around all openings in decks.* Use ground-fault circuit interruption devices at all times when using vibrators and other electrical tools. Wet concrete and water are excellent conductors. GFCI devices will prevent electrocution.* Make sure that all wire, rope, slings, shackles, and other lifting devices are sized correctly and inspected thoroughly before using. If something breaks under a lifting load, a lot of energy can be released. A flying cable can remove an arm or leg in an instant.Remember, accidents don’t just happen. They are more often the results of poor planning, improper training, or not thinking through each of your work activities.Task 2 Translate the phrases, memorize them1. accidents are preventable2. use of personal protection equipment3. Immediately remove clothing that has become saturated with wet concrete4. to damage your hearing permanently5. a chance of inhaling dirt, dust, chips, or mist6. when you are cutting, grinding, or chipping hardened concrete7. major sources of injuries and fatalities among construction workers8. when working at heights9. Be sure to place guardrails around all openings in decks10. the results of poor planning, improper training, or not thinking through each of your work activitiesTask 3.  Answer the questions.1. What things do you need to keep in mind when it comes to building a home?2. What are the most common injuries found in the construction?3. What are proper safety precautions when working at heights?4. Why are ladders and stairways considered to be major sources of injuries and fatalities among construction workers?