ТЕМЫ ПО ИНГЛИШУ СВОДНАЯ
Распределение подготовки тем: (10-15 предложений, так чтобы раскрыть суть вопроса)
Аня Богданова 17,18,19, 21 темы
Аня Груздева 4, 5, 6 темы
Жанна Оганесян 1, 2, 3 темы
Алексей Садов 11,12, 13, 20 темы
Антон Грушников 8,9,10, 22 темы
Андрей Гнедин 14,15,16 темы
Final Exam Topics for Discussion
1/ The 3 sectors of economy (NIBE pp.43-44 + Hand out)
2/The classification of economy depending on the money involved (notes in your copy-books)
3/The structure of economy in your country /region (p.44 NIBE)
4/ Company Structure (NIB pp4-5)
5/ Your company profile (together with the organizational structure ) NIBE pp 45-47)
7/ Your CV (каждый сам)
8/ Job hunting (hand –out Unit 6.Recruitment. 1a)
9/ Head-hunting+ the process of approaching the head – hunter person (NIB p.18)
10/ New interview strategies (up to sentences based on «Fit for hiring»)
11/ Filling a vacancy (hand out)
12/ Work attitude survey (Hand-out: tasks 3b, 3c)
13/Work, motivation, responsibility
14/ Theory X and Theory Y
15/ Sutersfires and motivators
16/ What is management (Piter Druker)
17/Company Strycture (Маккензи, pp 21-22)
18/ International management (pp 36-37, Маккензи и записи в тетр)
19/ Cross-cultural management (NIBE Unit 5, p 44) +Cultural shock
20/ Management development (if a manager needs to learn…he should)
21/ Fist 3 fundamental patterns of cultural differences
22/ Second 3 fundamental patterns of cultural differences
ТЕМЫ ОТ ЖАННЫ:
1. The 3 sectors of economy.
It is a well known fact that the structure of each country is different, but the economies of all the countries can be shown to have similar sectors. Three major sectors can normaly be recognized. They are:
The Primary sector deal with agriculture and the extraction of row materials from earth. (The Primary which includes agriculture, fishing, mining, construction)
Secondary. In other words it is industrial sector.(The Secondary sector which includes crafts (ремесла) and manufacturing)
Tertiary sector connected with serves provision. (The Tertiary sector including education, banking, insurance, etc., i.e. serves sphere)
The types of activity that most workers are occupied in (здесь сделать паузу) differ from one country to another and from one time to another. In the most developing countries (and in all countries before the 19th century), the vast majority of the workforce worked in the agricultural of the primary sector. Such work is almost entirely manual, and most of the country’s labour power is concentrated on the basic task of feeding the population. In fully developed countries far more of their productive resources are directed towards other economic activities. In the United States and Canada, for example, only 4 and 7 per cent respectively , of all employed persons work in agriculture, fishing, and mining (добыча полезных ископаемых), compared to more than 70 per cent in India.
2. The classification of economy depending on the money involved.
? How many sectors can be indentified (определено,установлено) in the structure of economy depending on the money involved
! There are 4 sectors if we structure the economy depending on the money involved-i.e. of the type of investment in each one.
? What are they
! There are Private, Public, Mixed, Voluntear
? From what means sources in every sector invested
! Each of the 4 sectors is funded from different sources.
The Public sector is funded by the Government.
In the Private sector the money belongs to private investors\businesses.
As for the Mixed sector it is financed by the partnership of the Government and Private sector.
The Volunteer sector is formed non-profit and non for profit organizations (эти понятия не синонимичны, т.к. они по-разному налогооблагаются). Such as Cancer Research Fund, Heart research Fund, Ecological, Environmental group, Hospices etc. This sort of organization make money not for profit. They invest it in the development of social services and health program, institutions for children and people with disabilities.
3. The structure of economy in Kostroma region.
So, Kostroma region is an industrial-agrarian region of Russia. The traditional industries are forestry and agriculture, belonging to the primary sector, electricity and vehicle manufacturing, jewelry and textiles (i.e. secondary sector). As for the tertiary sector, such activities as hotels and restaurants, catering, tourism, telecommunications, transport, banking and especially retailing are constantly growing. The industrial complex is basis of the regional economy. There are more than 260 large and medium enterprises, and about 530 small ones.
The average growth rate of industrial production in Kostroma region was 4,4% in 2000-2013.
The percentage of people working in different sectors differs from sector to sector, for example 30-40% of the whole population are engaged in the primary sector. As for the secondary sector of the workforce are involved 20-30% and the rest are engaged in the serves-provision i.e. tertiary sector.
Темы от Анны Груздевой:
4). Company Structures
1 Most companies are made up of three groups of people: the shareholders, the management and the workforce.
2 The shareholders are provide the capital.
3 The management structure of typical company is shown in this organization chart.
4 At the top of the company hierarchy is the Boad of Directors, headed by the Chairperson or President.
5 The Board is responsible for police decisions and strategy.
6 It will usually appoint a Managing Director or Chief Extcutive Officer, who has overall responsibility for the running of the business.
7 Senior managers or company officers head the various departments or function within the company.
8 The departments in the company are: Marketing, Public Relations, Information Technology or IT, Personnel or Human Resources, Finance, Production, Research and Development or R and D.
9 Sometimes a company headed by the president, having greater power than the board of directors.
10 In some companies there supervisory board group management committee.
11 Its functions are responsibilble for the general course of business.
12 It is makes sure policy is implemented and advises the board of management.
6). RECRUITMENT\ JOB HINTING
If an employee gives notice the employer should carry out the following steps.
The first step is to do try to discover why the person has resigned.
The second step is to examine the job description for the post, to see whether it needs to be changed.
The next step is carry out establish whether there is an internal candidate who could be promoted to the job. The forth step to make is to either hire a job agency, or advertise the vacancy.
Then an employee is to receive applications, curricula vitae and covering letters, and make a preliminary selection and follow up the references of candidates who seem interesting.
The next step is carry out to select the short-listed candidates for an interview and make a final selection. (Then the stage of receiving applications for the employer comes followed by are preliminary selection, that is making a short-list. )
And the final step is write to all the other candidates to inform them that they have been unsuccessful.
Темы от Антона Грушникова:
8. Job hunting
Many people looking for work read the job vacancies advertised by companies and employment agencies in newspapers or on the internet. To reply to an advertisement is to apply for a job. (You become a candidate or an applicant.) You write an application, or fill in the company’s application form and send it, along with your curriculum vitae or CV or resume and a covering letter.
You often have to give the names of two people who are prepared to write references for you. If your qualifications and abilities match the job description, you might be short-listed, i.e. selected to attend an interview.
9. Head hunting
Headhunters or executive search firms specialize in finding the right person for the right job. When a company wishes to recruit a new person for an important job it may use the services of such a firm. The advantages for the company are that it does not have to organise the costly and time-consuming process of advertising, selecting and interviewing suitable candidates. In some cases, the search firm may already have a list of people with the appropriate qualities for the job. If this is not the case, then it may act as a consultant, advising on or even organising testing and simulations to evaluate the candidates’ skills in order to select the most suitable person for the job.
10. New interview strategies
A growing number of companies, from General Motors Corp to American Express Co., are no longer satisfied with traditional job interviews. Instead, they are requiring applicants for many white-collar jobs — from top executives down — to submit to a series of paper-and-pencil tests, role- playing exercises, simulated decision-making exercises and brainteasers. Others put candidates through a long series of interviews by psychologists or trained interviewers.
The tests are not about mathematics or grammar, nor about any of the basic technical skills for which many production, sales and clerical workers have long been tested. Rather, employers want to evaluate candidates on intangible qualities.
These tests, which can take from an hour to two days, are all part of a broader trend. Ten years ago, candidates could win a top job with the right look and the right answers to questions such as ‘Why do you want this job? Now, many are having to face questions and exercises intended to learn how they get things done.
They may, for example, have to describe in great detail not one career accomplishment but many — so that patterns of behavior emerge.
Even companies that have not started extensive testing have toughened their hiring practices. Many now do background checks, for example, looking for signs of drug use, violence or sexual harassment. But the more comprehensive testing aims to measure skills in communications, analysis and organization, attention to detail and management style; personality traits and motivations that behavioral scientists say predict performance.
Темы от Алексея Садова:
11. Filling a vacancy.
When an employee “give notice” employer should carry out the range of following steps:
- First of all an employer is supposed to try to discover why the person has resigned.
-Next comes step to examine the job description for the post , to see whether it needs to be changed(or indeed whether the post needs to be filled)
-Another step to make is to establish whether there is an internal candidate who could be promoted (or moved sideways) to the job.
-Next step to carry out is to either hire a job agency , or advertise the vacancy
-Then the stage of receiving application, CV and covering letters comes followed by a preliminary selection that is making a shortlist.
-After that the employer needs to follow up the references of candidates who seem interesting
-and next invite the short-listed candidates for an interview
-After carrying out all this step she makes a final selection and write to all the other candidates to inform them that they have been unsuccessful.
12. Work attitude survey.
When I took part in a survey I had been asked a range of questions concerned attitude to work. And despite the fact that people feel in other way I think that my job is not the most important thing in my life. But if I do a job I prefer to be responsible for that to have motivation to do it better. What concerns work in a group or alone I prefer to work in a group rather than alone because I enjoy feeling happiness of attained objective set up for all the team. Working in a team I prefer flat hierarchy to clearly understand delegated responsibilities and prefer attain total agreement in the team to be ensure that we beat at one aim.
I’ve been also asked about relationships at work. Most of people prefer personal relationships with superiors , but Me don’t as don’t with subordinates because if the person who you work with is familiar to you it is turn bad at the business you do in reason of different cases , for example, if you want to sack him but can not because this reason of familiarity. That is why I do not prefer to do business with relatives.
I respect older people as the person who had live experience more than me, but if I feel doubts i may complain and argue with him. And as male I treat female colleagues in different way because they are just females.
13. Work motivation responsibility
In my opinion to be happy people need to have something to wake them up in the morning and one of this ”something “ is work. The work that You really desire wanted to do. Most people in my opinion want to be interested in their work and, given the right conditions, they will enjoy it. People can not to do nothing. Work is necessary to people’s psychological well-being. But some people don’t like what they do so there are some ways to motivate people. A chance of promotion and career ladder is one of great motivating factors. Responsibility is another factor. Under the right conditions, most people will accept responsibility and will want to realize their own potential.
Some scientists in psychology say that people are motivated mainly by money, but I think they don’t. they do at the first steps of work ,but then they realize that the job is becoming uninteresting the motivation by money becomes weak.
ТЕМЫ Андрея Гнедина
14 . Management a)Theory X and Theory Y
American theorist Mc Gregor outlined two opposing theories of work and motivation The Theory X and The Theory Y. Theory X is the traditional approach to workers and working which assumes that people are lazy and dislike work , and that they have to be both threatened and rewarded. It assumes that people are incapable of taking responsibility for themselves and have to be looked after. Theory Y , on the contrary , assumes that people have a psychological need to work and want achievement and responsibility.
Many people assume that Theory Y is more “progressive” and an advance on Theory X. But later theorists argued that it makes much greater demands on both workers and managers than Mc Gregor realized. Maslow studying one company that used theory Y concluded that it demands for responsibility and achievement are excessive for many people. He pointed out that there are always weak people with little self-discipline, who need protection against the burden(ноша) of responsibility. Even strong and healthy people need the security of order and direction. Managers cannot simply substitute Theory Y for Theory X. They have to replace the security provided by Theory X with a different structure of security and certainty.
15. Management b) satisfiers and motivators.
It is logical to suppose that things like good labour relations, good working conditions, good wages and benefits, and job security motivate workers. But some theorists argued that such conditions do not motivate workers. They are merely “satisfiers” or “dissatisfies” where they do not exist. “Motivators”, on the contrary, include things such as having a challenging and interesting job, recognition and responsibility, promotion and so on.
However, even with the development of computers and robotics, there are and always will be plenty of boring , repetitive and mechanical jobs in all three sectors of economy, and lots of unskilled people that have to do them.
One solution to motivate people is to give them some responsibilities, те as individuals but as part of a team. Another is to change people on repetitive jobs every couple of hours, as doing four different repetitive jobs a day is better than doing only one. Many people now talk about the importance of a company’s shared values or corporate cultures., with which all the staff can identify. Such values are more likely to motivate workers than financial targets, which ultimately concern only a few people.
16. What is management.
Work of managers can be divided into five groups
Managers set objectives and decide how their organization can achieve them.
Managers organize. They analyse and classify the activities of the organization and the relations among them. They divide the work into manageable activities and then into individual jobs. They select people to manage these units and perform the jobs.
Managers practice social skills of motivation and communication. They also have to communicate objectives to the people responsible for attaining them. They have to make the people who are responsible for performing individual jobs form team.
Managers have to measure the performance of their staff. To see whether the objectives set for the organization as a whole and for each individual member of it are being achieved.
Lastly, managers develop people- both their subordinates and themselves.
Obviously, objectives occasionally have to be modified or changed. And it is the job of company’s top managers to consider the needs of the future, and to take responsibility for innovation. Management is not entirely scientific.. It is a human skill. But intuition and “instinct” are not enough; there are management skills that have to be learnt.
ТЕМЫ ОТ БОГДАНОВОЙ А.:
17/Company Strycture (Маккензи, pp 21-22)
Most organizations have a hierarchical or pyramidal structure.
Here we can see one person or a group of people at the top, and an increasing number of people below them at each successive level.
There is a clear line or chain of command running down the pyramid.
All the people in the organization know what decisions they are able to make, who their superior is, and who they immediate subordinates are.
There are 4 main types of company structure: line structure, matrix structure, functional structure, staff position.
Today the most large manufacturing organizations have a functional structure. (Henry Ford, the French industrialist, was the inventor of this structure).
It includes production, finance, marketing, sales, and personel or human resources departments.
This means for example, that the production and marketing departments cannot take financial decisions without consulting the finance department.
Functional organization is efficient. But there are 2 standart criticism.
First: people are usually more concerned with the success of their department then that of the company.
So there are permanent battles between different departments, which have incompatible goals.
Secondly, separating functions is unlikely to encourage innovation.
18/ International management (pp 36-37, Маккензи и записи в тетр)
Managering a truly global multinational company would obviously be much simpler if it required only 1 set of corporate goals, policies, practices, products and services.
But Local differences often make this impossible.
Companies that want be successfull in foreign markets have to be aware of the local cultural characteristics that affect the way business is done.
Making international business we should remember that in the countries of North America and north-west Europe management lagely based on analysis, rationality, logic and system.
In the latin cultures of southern Europe and south America personal relations, intuition, emotion, sensitivity have grate importance.
The largely protestant cultures on both sides of the North Atlanic (Canada, the USA, Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Scandinavia) are essentially individualist. In such culturies status has to be achieved. A young dynamic aggressive manager with an MBA can quickly rise in the hierarchy.
In most Latin and and Asian cultures on the contrary status is automatically accorded to the boss, who is more likely to be in his fifties or sixties then in his thirties.
In northern cultures the principle of pay for performance often successfully motivates salespeople. The more you sell, the more you get paid.
This principle might well be resisted in more collectivist cultures, where rewards and promotion are expected to come with age and experience.
Another example of differences is that in Latin countries matrix management does not work well. The task-oriented logic of matrix management conflicts with the principle of loyalty to the all-important line superior, the functional boss.
In discussing peoples relationships with their boss and their colleagues and friends there are 2 sides:
Universalists believe that rules are extremely important (North Europe, the USA, Canada, Australia)
Particularists believe that personal relationships and friendships should take precedence (Latin and Asian countries).
ТЕМЫ ОТ АЛЕКСЕЯ:
20. Financial management development.
If you need to learn how to work with people you need a course in team development.
If you need to learn how to motivate and direct other people you need a leadership course.
If you need to learn how to talk to and listen to people better you need a course in communication skills
If you need to learn how to work with people from different counties and backgrounds you need a course in intercultural communication skills.
If you need to learn how to bargain with business partners you need a course in negotiating skills.
If you need to learn how to increase margins(граница) and control costs you need a financial management course.
If you need to learn how to set budgets, organize schedules and meet deadlines you need a project management course.
If you need to learn how to prioritize your work, And not put off important tasks you need a time management course.
If you need to learn how to be more ready to stand up to other people you need a course in assertiveness training.
If you need to learn how to give work to your subordinates you need a course in delegation.
21-22. 6 fundamental patterns of cultural difference. (КРАТКО!!!) Ниже есть более развернуто.
There are six fundamental Patterns of Cultural difference: Different communication styles, different attitudes toward conflict, different approaches to completing tasks, different decision making styles, Different attitudes toward disclosure, and different approach to knowing.
Different communication styles.
They are vary widely between and even within cultures. One aspect is language usage. Across cultures, some words and phrases are used in different ways. Another major aspect is the degree of importance given to non-verbal communication. There are not only facial expressions and gestures but also seating arrangements, personal distance, and sense of time.
Different attitudes toward conflict.
Some cultures view conflict as a positive thing, while others view it as something to be avoided.
Different approaches to completing tasks.
The reasons are:different access to recourses, different judgments of the rewards associated with task completion, different notions of time, and varied ideas about how relationship building and task-oriented work should go together.
Different decision- making styles.
The role individuals play in decision-making vary widely from culture to culture.
Different attitudes toward disclosure.(раскрытие)
In some cultures, it is not appropriate to be frank about emotions, about the reasons behind the conflict or misunderstanding, or about personal information.
Different approaches to knowing.
Differences occur when it comes to the ways people come to know things. You can see how this difference could affect ways of analyzing a community problem or finding ways to solve it. Some people may whant to do library research others may prefer to visit places and people who have experienced challenges.
21/ Fist 3 fundamental patterns of cultural differences
Different communicational styles:
The way people communicate varies widely between cultures.
There are some aspects of communicational style:
language usage — across cultures some words and phrases are used in different ways.
The degree of importance given to non-verbal communication (facial expressions and gestures, seating arrangements, personal distance, sence of time)
Different norms regarding the appropriate degree of assertiveness in communicating ( rised voices)
Different Attitudes toward Conflicts:
Some cultures view conflict as a positive thing, others view it as something to be avoid. In the USA conflicts are usually desirable. People often are encouraged to deal directly with conflicts that do arise. In contrast in many Eastern countries, open conflict is experienced as demeaning. As a rule differences are best worked out quietly.
Different Approaches to completing tasks:
From culture to culture there are different ways that people move toward completing tasks. Some reasons include different access to resourses, different judgments of the rewards associated with task completion, different notions of time.
Asian cultures tend to attach more value to developing relationships at the beginning of a shared project. European –Americans tend to focus immediately on the task at hand, and let relationships develop as they work on the task.
Different Decision-Making Styles
The roles individuals play in decision-making vary widely from culture to culture. For example, in the U.S., decisions are frequently delegated — that is, an official assigns responsibility for a particular matter to a subordinate. In many Southern European and Latin American countries, there is a strong value placed on holding decision-making responsibilities oneself. When decisions are made by groups of people, majority rule is a common approach in the U.S.; in Japan consensus is the preferred mode. Be aware that individuals’ expectations about their own roles in shaping a decision may be influenced by their cultural frame of reference.
In some cultures, it is not appropriate to be frank about emotions, about the reasons behind a conflict of a misunderstanding, or about personal information. Keep this in mind when you are in a dialogue or when you are working with others. When you are dealing with a conflict, be mindful that people may differ in what they feel comfortable revealing. Questions that may seem natural to you — What was the conflict about? What was your role in the conflict? What was the sequence of events? — may seem intrusive to others. The variation among cultures in attitudes toward disclosure is also something to consider before you conclude that you have an accurate reading of the views, experiences, and goals of the people with whom you are working.
Notable differences occur among cultural groups when it comes to epistemologies — that is, the ways people come to know things. European cultures tend to consider information acquired through cognitive means, such as counting and measuring, more valid than other ways of coming to know things. Compare that to African cultures’ preference for affective ways of knowing, including symbolic imagery and rhythm. Asian cultures’ epistemologies tend to emphasize the validity of knowledge gained through striving toward transcendence. Recent popular works demonstrate that our own society is paying more attention to previously overlooked ways of knowing.
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