статьи 1 курс 2 семестр
1 курс Статья №1
The Symbol of the City
People who come to New York by sea are greeted by the Statue of Liberty. It has become a symbol of the city (if not of the whole country) and an expression of freedom to people all over the world. The statue shows liberty as a proud woman draped in the graceful folds of a loose robe. In her uplifted right hand, she holds a glowing torch. She wears a crown with seven spikes that stand for the light of liberty shining on the seven seas and seven continents. In her left arm, she holds a tablet with the date of the Declaration of Independence. A chain that represents tyranny lies broken at her feet.
The Statue of Liberty was France’s gift to America. It was designed by the French sculptor Bartholdi and presented to the USA in 1886. The Lady, in the Harbour stands 151 feet tall, weighs nearly 225 tons and has a 35-foot waist. In 1986 she underwent a face-lift in honour of her 100th birthday.
There is a museum in the base of the statue devoted to the history of immigration to the United States. 365 steps lead from the entrance to the observation area in the seven-pointed crown (visitors are not allowed to climb to the torch). The views are breathtaking. The Lady of the Harbour is tourists’ favourite souvenir. It takes the form of salt shakers and pencil sharpeners, adorns plates and T-shirts.
New York is often called the cultural capital of the USA.
There are more than 800 museums in New York. One of the best known is the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It is the largest art museum in the United States. Its magnificent collection of European and American paintings contains works of many of the greatest masters of art world. The second best known is the Museum of Modern Art. The reputation of the «Moma», as the museum is nicknamed, rests on its wonderful collections of modern art and photography. The Guggenheim Museum of Modern Art contains an impressive collection of modern artists ranging from impressionists to abstractionists. The unusual circular building of the museum was designed by F.L. Wright.
No other city in the world offers as much theatre as New York where there is a daily choice of almost two hundred productions. You can see the newest plays and shows on Broadway. But away from the bright lights of Broadway there are many smaller theatres. Their plays are called ‘»off-Broadway» and «off-off-Broadway» and they are often more unusual than the Broadway shows. Some Broadway musicals like «Cats», «Miss Saigon» live for decades, some off-Broadway shows live for a week.
The Metropolitan Opera at Lincoln Centre (the Met) is known throughout the music world. International stars sing here from September until April. The Carnegie Hall is the city’s most popular concert hall. It was opened in 1891 with a concert conducted by P.I. Tchaikovsky. Music masters such as Arthur Toskanini, Leonard Bernstein, Isaac Stern, Frank Sinatra, the Beatles have made up the Carnegie bill.
New York is famous for its festivals and special events: summer jazz, one-act play marathons, international film series, and musical celebrations from the classical to the avant-garde.
There are a lot of colleges and universities in New York, among them such giants as Columbia University, the State University of New York, the City University of New York, New York University and others.
The New York Public Library is the largest library of the city. You can see a lot of interesting things here: Gilbert Stuart’s portrait of George Washington, Charles Dickens’s desk, and Thomas Jefferson’s own handwritten copy of the Declaration of Independence.
1 курс Статья №2
Madam Tussaud’s is the most popular and talked about wax museum in the world/ There are wax models of the famous and infamous, both living and dead, from every walk of life.
Elvis Presley, the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Marilyn Monro, Marlon Brando, Elisabeth Taylor, Alfred Hitchcock, Charlie Chaplin, the British Royal family, Margaret Thatcher, Bill Clinton, Jack the Ripper…. There is no other place where you can see all the celebrities at once, even if they are only wax figures.
So if you want to rub shoulders with kings and queens or the latest pop stars, or probably with notorious criminals, this is the place to go. The museum is situated in Marylebone Road, not far from street which is famous as the home of the first great detective in fiction, Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes. There’s usually a long queue in front of the museum. No wonder! Many tourists would consider their trip to London worthless if they didn’t visit the famous Madam Tussaud’s. Last year, for example, the museum had 2,790,000 visitors!
There are several halls at Madam Tussaud’s. Highlights include the Grand Hall, the Chamber of Horrors and ‘The Spirit of London’ exhibition. The wax figures are standing and sitting, and sometimes even moving and talking. They are extremely realistic and when they look at you, their eyes sparkling, you often feel uncomfortable in their company. Computer-controlled figures (they are called audioanimatronics) are especially popular with the visitors.
The Grand Hall
In the Grand Hall you will find all kinds of celebrities, from Bill Clinton to Michael Jackson and Pavarotti to Mandela. You will meet people, both men and women, who have made a lasting impact on our lives, and whose memories still live on.
The earliest figure from history on display is William the Conqueror.
The politicians stand in solemn silence watching each other. A very strange company indeed: Winston Churchill, Adolph Hitler, Joseph Stalin. Margaret Thatcher, Oliver Cromwell. Michael Gorbachev … There is л special place for the Royal family here too.
New models are being produced all the time while the old ones art’ quietly removed from display. Over the years hundreds of celebrities have made their way to Madame Tussaud’s studio. Most people agree to be portrayed, but some refuse. Mother Teresa was one of the few who declined, saying her work was important, not her person.
Modelling methods at Madame Tussaud’s almost haven’t changed in 200 years. «It’s the same process basically, and the same kind of wax is used,» says Craig, head of the portrait studio of the museum. These days, however, the bodies are made of fiberglass while originally they were made of leather stuffed with straw.
Ever)’ year about 10 new figures are made at Madam Tussaud’s. As soon as a person is chosen, the first step is to collect information It means photographs and articles if the person is alive, or portraits and biographies if the person is dead.
Then it must be decided in which part of the exhibition the figure should be be placed, what the post-should be and its relationship to other wax portraits.
Sittings usually take place at Madam Tussaud’s studios. But if celebrities can’t visit Madam Tussaud’s London studios, then the sculptors go to them. Queen Elizabeth II for example, receives sculptor s at Buckingham Palace.
The measuring has to be very accurate. «We usually take about 150 measurements,» says Craig. It takes about six months to complete a figure. Most of the time is spent on the head. The sculptor begins by modelling the head in clay. At this stage the hair is also sculpted. When the sculptor is satisfied with the clay model, the wax one is being made.
The next important stage is to fix the eyes. These are individually made and painted to match the exact colour of the celebrity’s eyes. The eyes are then fixed from inside the head.
Human hair, matched for colour and texture, is inserted in the scalp with the help of a tiny fork. The next process is colouring which is done by skilled artists. Once or twice a year die colour is washed off the head with soap and water and the head is recoloured.
Madam Tussaud’s costume designers work as much as the sculptors do.
Indeed, the historical figures in the exhibition give an excellent opportunity to study the dress of previous generations. Nowadays celebrities often give their own costumes to the exhibition.
Audioanimatronic figures are carefully planned and programmed by a team of engineers. Speech and sound are recordered onto CDs and synchronized with the movements.
Did you know?
It costs about 40,000 dollars to make a wax figure at Madam Tussaud’s.
Queen Elizabeth II has been modelled 17 times — more than anyone else — each time with a new head.
Madam Tussaud’s predicted that Bill Clinton would win the US Presidential election and sculptors had completed his head in clay by the time results came in.
Though Leonardo DiCaprio has won the hearts of millions of young people, he is only on a ‘maybe* list at Madam
Elizabeth Taylor and Henry VIII have one thing in common: they’re the most married of all
the characters at Madam Tussaud’s. The term ‘Chamber of Horrors’ was coined in 1846 by the satirical magazine Punch.
1 курс Статья №3
Multicultural London: Melting pot of cultures
London is undoubtedly one of the greatest cities in the world. It’s got everything a visitor (and a citizen, of course) could possibly want: rich history, beautiful architecture, charming parks, incredible museums and amazing restaurants…. The list could be continued forever. Although there are other great cities that can boast similar attractions, London is truly unique in its multiculturalism.
The main reason why London has become a ‘melting pot’ of nations is the long history of immigration to Britain. More recently, the British Empire and the Second World War have had a serious impact on the number of immigrants in Britain.
About 8,000 Caribbeans (e.g. Jamaicans) served as soldiers in Britain during the Second World War. After the war, many decided to stay. As they were citizens of the British Empire, they had the right to work and live in Britain.
In the 1950s and 1960s, when Britain had finally recovered from the hardships of war and needed more workers, many Indians and Pakistanis came to live and work in Britain. A few years later, the first Indian restaurants were opened. Forty years on, it’s hard to imagine British cuisine without Chicken Tikka Masala, the most famous Indian euro’ specially designed for British taste.
There are lots of other reasons why people come to live in Britain, such as seeking protection from war, poverty or political persecution back home.
So many people have chosen London to be their ‘home from home’ that today, an incredible 300 languages can be heard in its streets!
There are areas in London that are mainly populated by people of a particular ethnic origin. For example, Brixton in South London is famous for its well-established West-Indian community, whereas Wood Green in North London is a large Turkish settlement. But almost every part of London is populated with a wide mixture of people from lots of different countries and cultures. And, of course there are also large numbers of Irish, Scottish and Welsh people living in London.
However, unlike New York, where each community is tightly knit and doesn’t mix with other communities, London is truly multicultural. Here’s one example. If you’re a Turk, you can wander round the Greek areas and markets without any worries. If you’re an Anglo-Saxon (the original peoples of England) you can drop into a Jamaican bar without offending anyone. If, by contrast, you were a white person, and walked around the ‘black’ areas of New York, you would very soon be made to feel out of place. In fact in the US, going into another community’s area can be dangerous. This is what they call ‘ghettoisation’. The same is true in France. British people can be rightly proud of their multicultural achievements.
In addition, coming to live in London from other countries doesn’t mean that newcomers have to forget their own culture (as they are encouraged to do in the USA and France). Everywhere you go, you’ll see how other cultures have been embraced by mighty London. Ethnic festivals, markets, centers and events are as much part of London as Big Ben and the Tower of London.
Of course, there are some problems. For example, although there are laws against racial discrimination, people from ethnic minorities are more likely to do unskilled jobs or be unemployed than the majority of the population. However, there are also many examples of people from ethnic minorities occupying the best and most prestigious jobs. Lots of Asians are doctors and lawyers. The Chinese communities are economically very active.
Nowadays everywhere you go, you will meet someone whose parents or grandparents come from a long way away: your doctor’s parents come from Warsaw, your local fish and chip shop is owned by a couple from Shanghai, your taxi driver’s mum is from Tehran.
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