английкий семенары 2 семестр

131 група ФПІС

ІІ Семестр

ІІІ. Змістовий модуль „Велика Британія. Сполучені Штати Америки”

Практичне заняття № 1

Тема: Географічне розташування Великобританії. Політична система країни.

1. Робота над текстом за темою заняття.

1. Прочитайте та запишіть транскрипцію власних назв: The United Kingdom, The British Isles, Cardiff, Belfast, Edinburgh ,Liverpool, Cambridge, Oxford, Stratford-upon-Avon.

2. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The UK is situated on two large islands called the British Isles. The larger island is Great Britain, the smaller is Ireland. The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It consists of four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

The country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Irish Sea. The area of the UK is 84, 550 square miles. The population is 57 million people.

If you travel to Great Britain from Ukraine, it will take you two days to pass through several countries on the continent by train, and six more hours to cross the English Channel by boat. If you fly to Great Britain, it will take you only three and a half hours.

There are also mountain chains in Scotland, Wales and North-West England, but they are not very high. North-West England is also famous for its beautiful lakes. The longest river in England is the Severn and the deepest is the Thames. London stands on the river Thames. London is the capital of England.

The sea enters deeply into the land. It has a great influence on the climate. The climate is damp, but mild. The winter is not very cold and the summer is not very hot. The winds are very warm: refreshing breezes come from the sea. There is much rain during the year. In fact, no region in the country is dry for three weeks. England is also famous for its fogs. Englishmen call them «pea soups». But, in fact, there is no fog in England now. Antipollution helped.

Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. The formal head of the state is Queen Elizabeth II. But the prime minister is the real head of the state. He is the head of the government. Ministers govern Great Britain. And queen doesn’t have any power at all. She is only a symbol of Great Britain.

Parliament makes laws. It consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. People elect the members of the House of Commons (MPs). The members of the House of Lords inherit their titles. MPs receive a salary, and the members of the House of Lords do not receive a salary. The UK doesn’t have any written constitution.

Great Britain has a very powerful economy. It is a manufacturing and trading nation. It exports cars, buses, trucks, motorcycles. But it doesn’t produce enough food. The UK imports food. Englishmen raise sheep for meat and wool. They grow potatoes, sugar beets and wheat. Apple and cherry orchards in spring are very beautiful. Natural resources of the UK are gas, coal and oil.

3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:

Великобритания – высокоразвитое государство;

Она расположена на северо-западе Европы;

Соединенное королевство состоит из четырех частей: Шотландии,

Англии, Уэльса и Северной Ирландии.

Столица Великобритании – Лондон;

Страна омывается Северным морем, Атлантическим океаном;

Население страны – 57 млн. человек;

Климат Великобритании — мягкий;

Самая большая река – Севан, самая глубокая – Темза;

Крупные города: Шеффилд, Берлинцем, Манчестер, Глароу.

4. Answer questions:

— Where is UK situated?

— Is this country highly developed?

— By what ocean and sees is UK washed by?

— Haw many parts have Great Britain?

— Haw many people live in this country?

— What is the capital of UK?

— What is the main city of Great Britain?

— What is the main river of the country?

— What is the lance area (244 км2).

5. Learn these facts by heart:

Government: Forms of government: Constitutional Monarchy. In practice a parliamentary democracy.

Head of the state: Monarch (queen or king)

Head of government: Prime Minister

Legislature: Parliament of two houses: 651 – member House of Commons; the House of Lords – about 1, 170 members.

Executive: Prime Minister (chosen y the House of Commons) and Cabinet

Political subdivisions: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – four “countries” united under one government. Each country has units of local government.

Economy. Chief Products: Agriculture – wool, beef, cattle, milk, chicken and eggs, pigs, wheat, potatoes, barley, sugar beet. Manufacturing – foods and beverages, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, electrical and electronic goods, machinery, motor vehicles, textiles and clothing, rubber and plastics goods, iron and steel, meal manufactures, ceramics.

Money: Basic unit – pound, also called pound sterling.

ІІ. Робота над текстом за професійним спрямуванням

1. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст

BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology is a science which cannot be concretely defined. It is the study of the mind and behavior. There are several branches of psychology.

Behavioral psychology is the more popular term used for behavioral neuroscience, or biopsychology, or psychobiology. It studies the mental processes and the behavioral patterns of humans as well as non-human subjects. Treatment in this branch of psychology is more physical, like electrolytic lesions and chemical lesions.

Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology that is the scientific study of the prevention, understanding and the relieving of psychologically based issues. Psychological assessment and psychotherapy are the means of treatment used in this field of psychology.

Cognitive psychology, one of the most recent branches, deals with the internal mental processes of thought such as visual processing, memory, problem solving, and language. It basically looks over the information processing functioning of the brain. So, it looks into concepts like perception, aging, memory, emotions, decision-making, etc.

Community psychology studies the psychology of individuals and the dynamics in a community. It studies community oriented behavior. It helps a community understand social justice, citizen participation, etc.

Developmental psychology is the study of the systematic changes that occur in a human being and his psyche over the course of life. Educational psychology is used in educational institutions. It deals with learning disorders, «gifted» students, peer pressure, adolescence, sex education in children, etc.

Evolutionary psychology studies the most primal psychological stimuli in human begins.

Personality psychology governs the legitimate IQ tests and the personality tests that one takes to understand themselves better.

Завдання до тексту

1. Доберіть англійські відповідники до поданих слів:

1) study

A) пам’ять

2) branch

B) поведінка

3) mind

C) людський

4) behavior

D) психіка

5) mental

E) розвиток

6) human

F) вчення

7) treatment

G) розум

8) memory

H) гілка

9) development

I) розумовий

10) psyche

J) лікування

2. Установіть відповідність між терміном та дефініцією:

1) psychology

A) therapeutic interaction or treatment between a trained professional and a client

2) behavior

B) generic term for conscious experience that is characterized by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, and mental states

3) treatment

C) a man, person

4) psychotherapy

D) is used to cure health problem

5) cognitive psychology

E) the totality of the human mind, conscious, and unconscious

6) perception

F) an applied and academic field that studies the human mind and behavior

7) emotion

G) a systematized series

8) human being

H) the range of actions

9) psyche

I) organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information

10) course

J) it is the study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems

3. Складіть до тексту словник фахових термінів за схемою: термін (англійською мовою), транскрипція, переклад терміну українською мовою. Обсяг словника – 25 слів.

4. Складіть простий план до тексту.

ІІІ. Граматичний матерал

Тема: Займенники.

Вправа 1. Замініть виділені слова особовими та питальними займенниками.

1. Columbo is a detective. ________________________________________________

2. A detective investigates crimes. __________________________________________

3. Detective stories are interesting. _________________________________________

4. My sister’s friend is a shy person. ________________________________________

5. Our neighbours are kind. ________________________________________________

6. I learn English. ________________________________________________________

7. Grammar is boring but nessessary. _________________________________________

8. Our teacher’s name is William. ____________________________________________

9. Learning English is easy. _________________________________________________

10. The students in my group are helpful. ______________________________________

Впарва 2. Перекладіть займенники подані у дужках.

1. Keep (твої) books on the shelves. 2. (Твої) hands are very dirty. 3. (Його) poems are very good. 4. These are (її) photos. 5. Where are (твої) friends now? 6. (Мої) students are at the lecture. 7. Are these (твої) newspapers?

Практичне заняття № 2

Тема: Освіта в Великобританії і США

І. Робота над текстом за темою заняття.

1. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст. Консультуйтеся з вправою 2 для вдалого перекладу.

Compulsory education begins at 5, and children attend primary school until they are 11. Normally the primary school is divided into Infants (5—7) and Juniors (7—11).At the age of 11 most children go to a comprehensive school where they stay until they are 16. In the past children went to different types of secondary schools, but in most parts of the country everybody now goes to a comprehensive.Some parents, who do not want their children to go to a comprehensive pay to send them to a private school. The most expensive and prestigious private schools are actually called public schools.At the age of 16 people take their examinations. Most take General Certificate of Education (G.С.E.). Ordinary Levels — normally called just ‘O’ Levels. People take ‘O’ Levels in as many subjects as they want to; some take one or two, others take as many as nine or ten.If you get good ‘O’ Level results, you can stay on at school until you are 18, in the Sixth Form. Here you prepare for Advanced Level Exams (‘A’ Levels). Again, you take as many of these as you want to, but most people take two or three.In case you pass your exams well you have a chance of going on to university though this is not automatic. The number of people who study there is strictly controlled. Other types of further education are offered at polytechnics and colleges of higher education. Polytechnics offer the chance to study subjects in a more practical way, and many colleges of higher education specialize in teacher training.

2. Вивчіть наступні слова

Compulsory education – обов’язкова освіта

primary school – початкова школа

Infants (5—7) – учні початкової школи від 5 до 7 років

Juniors (7—11) – учні початкової школи від 5 до 7 років

comprehensive school – загальноосвітня школа

public schools – закритий приватний навчальний заклад

General Certificate of Education – атестат про загальну середню освіту

Ordinary Levels – іспит з програми середньої школи за загальним рівнемAdvanced Level Exams – іспит з програми середньої школи ускладненого рівня

polytechnics and colleges – політехнічний інститути та коледжі

3. Задайте десять запитань до тексту.

THE US EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

Education is not mentioned in the Constitution, nor is there any federal department of education, so the matter is left to individual states. Education is free and compulsory in all states, however, from the age of 6 till 16 (or 18).At 6 years of age children begin the first year of elementary school, which is called grade 1 or first grade (the second year is «grade 2″, etc). At elementary school the emphasis is placed on the basic skills (speaking, reading, writing and arithmetic), though the general principle throughout the American school system is that children should be helped and encouraged to develop their own particular interests.Children move on to high school in the ninth grade, where they continue until the twelfth grade. There are two basic types of high school: one with a more academic curriculum,preparing students for admission to college, and the other offering primarily vocational education (training in a skill or trade). The local school board decides which courses are compulsory. There is great freedom of choice, however, and an important figure in high schools is the guidance counsellor, who advises the students on what courses to take on the basis of their career choices and frequent aptitude and ability tests.In order to receive the high school diploma necessary in most states to get into college, students must accumulate a minimum number of credits, which are awarded for the successful completion of each one — or half-year course. Students hoping to be admittedto the more famous universities require far more than the minimum number of credits and must also have good grades (the mark given on the basis of course work and a written examination). Extra-curricular activity (such as playing for one of the school’s sports teams) is also very important in the American school system and is taken into consideration by colleges and employers.

ІІ. Робота над текстом за професійним спрямуванням

1. Дайте відповіді на питання до тексту з практичного заняття № 1:

1) What is the subject of psychology studying?

2) How many branches of psychology do you know?

3) What synonyms for behavior psychology do you know?

4) What does the behavioral psychology study?

5) What treatment is used in clinical psychology?

6) What kind of cognitive processes do you know?

7) What are the functions of community psychology?

8) For what purposes is educational psychology used?

9) What is the difference between developmental and evolutionary psychology?

10) In what way does personality psychology help people to understand themselves?

2. Доповніть речення, використовуючи текст з практичного заняття № 1:

1) There are several branches of psychology, such as…

2) Treatment in behavior psychology is …

3) Cognitive psychology looks into concepts, like …

4) Educational psychology deals with …

5) Evolutionary psychology studies …

7. Підготуйте усне повідомлення про зміст прочитаного тексту з практичного заняття № 1.

ІІІ. Граматичний матеріал

Тема: Теперішній неозначений час.The Present Indefinite Tense.

Present Indefinite – одна з часових форм дієслова, що вживається для вираження дії, яка відбувається в теперішньому   часі. Теперішній час передбачає не лише момент мовлення, а й більш тривалий проміжок часу, що включає момент мовлення. Стверджувальна форма дієслова в Present Indefinite в усіх особах однини й множини, крім третьої особи однини, збігається з інфінітивом (неозначеною формою дієслова) без частки to: I work. Я працюю. We work. Ми працюємо. You work. Ви працюєте. (Ти працюєш.). They work. Вони працюють. У третій особі однини в Present Indefinite до інфінітива (без частки to) додається закінчення -s або –es:to run бігати - he runs. Більшість дієслів у третій особі однини мають закінчення -s. Закінчення -es додається у таких випадках: а) якщо основа дієслова закінчується на -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -tch, -х: to dress одягатися - dresses б) якщо основа дієслова закінчується на -у з попередньою приголосною, при цьому перед -es буква у змінюється на і: to study вивчати – studies Але: Якщо перед у стоїть голосна, то до дієслова додається лише закінчення -s: to play грати – plays в) якщо основа дієслова закінчується на -о: to go іти – goes.Питальна форма Present Indefinite утворюється з допоміжного дієслова do (I, we, you, they) та does (he, she, it) в Present Indefinite та інфінітива основного дієслова без частки to. Допоміжне дієслово ставиться перед підметом: Do I work? Does he work? What does she say? Питальні речення, в яких питальне слово виконує роль підмета або означення до підмета, мають будову розповідного речення. Допоміжне дієслово do/does у цьому разі не вживається: Who goes there?  Заперечна форма Present Indefinite утворюється з допоміжного дієслова do/does в Present Indefinite, заперечної частки not та інфінітива основного дієслова без частки to: I do not work. He (she it) does not work. В усному мовленні замість do not і does not звичайно вживаються скорочені форми don’t і doesn’t.Теперешній неозначений час вживається з наступними обставинами

звичайно - usually

кожен день - every day

двічі на тиждень - twice a week

4 рази в місяць - 4 times a month

по неділях - on sundays

по вихідним - at week-ends, on one’s free days

по буднях - on week-days

вранці - in the morning (s)

вечорами - in the evening (s)

часто - often

рідко - seldom

іноді - sometimes

завжди - always

практично ніколи - hardly ever

досить часто - quite often

досить рідко - rather seldom

дуже часто - very often

ніколи - never

кожну суботу - every saturday

взимку - in winter

влітку - in summer

навесні - in spring

восени - in autumn

1. Write the following verbs in the third person singular.

Dance, breathe, hurry, play, go, catch, dream, hit, teach, fix, depend, tidy, press, say, remember, crash, apply, type, fetch, write, stay, weigh, take, study, freeze, lay, pick, do, relax, agree, pray, discuss, reach, delay.

2. Make up the sentences using the verbs in the correct form.

1) Henry/advice/parents/for/always/his/ask.

2) sick/A/ care/ of/people/take/nurse.

3) hotel/excellent/provide/service/This.

4) often/from/Jane/friends/massages/receive/her.



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